The Megatons To Megawatts Program Involves A U.s.-Russian Agreement To Quizlet


The megatonnes megawatts program has dramatically improved the world`s security by constantly reducing stockpiles of nuclear bomb materials while creating a clean and valuable resource — uranium for use in nuclear fuels. Under the terms of the contract amended in 1996, United States Enrichment Corporation (i) acquired the enrichment share of the blended materials and sold them to its electricity suppliers for the production of fuels for their commercial nuclear power plants and (ii) TENEX transferred a quantity of natural uranium corresponding to the natural uranium component of low-enriched uranium. In 1999, Russia concluded a contract for the sale of this natural uranium with three Western companies. In December 2013, the program is complete: 500 tons of highly enriched bomb uranium were recycled into more than 14,000 tons of low-enriched uranium, permanently eliminating enough bomb-usable materials for 20,000 nuclear warheads. The HEU-LEU agreement was very different from the 1992 agreement on safe transport, stockpiling and destruction of weapons and prevention of arms proliferation, which provided the legal framework for the Nunn Lugar programme. Under the terms of this agreement, the United States donors and Russia have been the recipients of U.S. financial and technical assistance, including funds made available to Russia to implement the reductions provided for in START I. On the other hand, the HEU-LEU agreement was essentially a business activity advantageous to both parties. In February 2008, Rosatom and the Ministry of Commerce signed an amendment to the 1992 agreement allowing the Russian nuclear industry to deliver up to 20% of US demand for uranium products between 2014 and 2020, in order to solve this problem, which would have been much more serious for the Us after the end of DELIVERIES under WEU. As part of this amendment, Tenex must sign contracts directly with U.S. nuclear power plant operators bypassing the USEC. Last January, the Russian portfolio of contracts signed under the deal was worth about $6 billion. Moscow and Washington were forced to enter into lengthy negotiations to find a mutually acceptable solution.

Complications were such that UI deliveries were halted for more than six months and the entire program was on the verge of complete collapse. The 2000 agreement between the United States and Russia excludes the reprocessing of MOX fuel to military plutonium if plutonium is separated, so such reprocessing will be either plutonium plus uranium or more Actinide. . . .